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Creator: Uy, Timothy, Yi, Kei-Mu, and Zhang, Jing Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 456 Abstract:
We study the importance of international trade in structural change. Our framework has both productivity and trade cost shocks, and allows for non-unitary income and substitution elasticities. We calibrate our model to investigate South Korea’s structural change between 1971 and 2005. We find that the shock processes, propagated through the model’s two main transmission mechanisms, non-homothetic preferences and the open economy, explain virtually all of the evolution of agriculture and services labor shares, and the rising part of the hump-shape in manufacturing. Counterfactual exercises show that the role of the open economy is quantitatively important for explaining South Korea’s structural change.
Palabra clave: International trade, Sectoral labor reallocation, and Structural transformation Tema: O13 - Economic Development: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products, F20 - International Factor Movements and International Business: General, F40 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General, and O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
Creator: Bocola, Luigi and Lorenzoni, Guido Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 557 Abstract:
We study financial panics in a small open economy with floating exchange rates. In our model, bank runs trigger a decline in domestic wealth and a currency depreciation. Runs are more likely when banks have dollar debt. Dollar debt emerges endogenously in response to the precautionary motive of domestic savers: dollar savings provide insurance against crises; so when crises are possible it becomes relatively more expensive for banks to borrow in local currency, which gives them an incentive to issue dollar debt. This feedback between aggregate risk and savers’ behavior can generate multiple equilibria, with the bad equilibrium characterized by financial dollarization and the possibility of bank runs. A domestic lender of last resort can eliminate the bad equilibrium, but interventions need to be fiscally credible. Holding foreign currency reserves hedges the fiscal position of the government and enhances its credibility, thus improving financial stability.
Palabra clave: Lending of last resort, Foreign reserves, Financial crises, and Dollarization Tema: E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems, G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions, and G15 - International Financial Markets
Creator: Weber, Warren E. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 094 Abstract:
This paper analyzes the variability of output under money supply and exchange rate rules in an open economy in which the slope of the aggregate supply curve depends on the variances of aggregate demand and market-specific innovations. It demonstrates that results regarding the dominance of one rule over the other when the slope of the aggregate supply curve is constant are reversed when the slope of the aggregate supply curve depends on the variances of innovations and these variances are sufficiently large.
Creator: Kehoe, Patrick J. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 305 Palabra clave: Ricardian Proposition, World economy, Dynamic theory, Global economics, Monetary economics, and Optimal consumption behavior Tema: E21 - Macroeconomics: Consumption; Saving; Wealth and F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
Creator: Boyd, John H. and Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 522 Abstract:
We consider a two country growth model with international capital markets. These markets fund capital investment in both countries, and operate subject to a costly state verification (CSV) problem. Investors in each country require some external finance, but also provide internal finance, which mitigates the CSV problem. When two identical (except for their initial capital stocks) economies are closed, they necessarily converge monotonically to the same steady state output level. Unrestricted international financial trade precludes otherwise identical economies from converging, and poor countries are necessarily net lenders to rich countries. Oscillation in real activity and international capital flows can occur.
Palabra clave: CSV, Open economy, International lending, Costly state verification, Capital investment, Closed economy, Credit rationing, International capital markets, and Credit Tema: F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems and O16 - Economic Development: Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
Creator: Hevia, Constantino and Nicolini, Juan Pablo Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 702 Abstract:
We analyze optimal policy in a simple small open economy model with price setting frictions. In particular, we study the optimal response of the nominal exchange rate following a terms of trade shock. We depart from the New Keynesian literature in that we explicitly model interna-tionally traded commodities as intermediate inputs in the production of local final goods and assume that the small open economy takes this price as given. This modification not only is in line with the long-standing tradition of small open economy models, but also changes the optimal movements in the exchange rate. In contrast with the recent small open economy New Keynesian literature, our model is able to reproduce the comovement between the nominal exchange rate and the price of exports, as it has been documented in the commodity currencies literature. Although we show there are preferences for which price stability is optimal even without flexible fiscal instruments, our model suggests that more attention should be given to the coordination between monetary and fiscal policy (taxes) in small open economies that are heavily dependent on exports of commodities. The model we propose is a useful framework in which to study fear of floating.
Palabra clave: Optimal monetary policy, Terms of trade shocks, Devaluations, and Small open economy Tema: F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics and E52 - Monetary Policy
Creator: Hevia, Constantino and Nicolini, Juan Pablo Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 726 Abstract:
We study a model of a small open economy that specializes in the production of commodities and that exhibits frictions in the setting of both prices and wages. We study the optimal response of monetary and exchange rate policy following a positive (negative) shock to the price of the exportable that generates an appreciation (depreciation) of the local currency. According to the calibrated version of the model, deviations from full price stability can generate welfare gains that are equivalent to almost 0.5% of lifetime consumption, as long as there is a significant degree of rigidity in nominal wages. On the other hand, if the rigidity is concentrated in prices, the welfare gains can be at most 0.1% of lifetime consumption. We also show that a rule - formally defined in the paper - that resembles a "dirty floating" regime can approximate the optimal policy remarkably well.
Palabra clave: Dutch disease, Foreign exchange intervention, and Inflation targeting Tema: F31 - Foreign Exchange and F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
Creator: Ayres, João, Hevia, Constantino, and Nicolini, Juan Pablo Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 743 Abstract:
In this paper, we show that a substantial fraction of the volatility of real exchange rates between developed economies such as Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom against the US dollar can be accounted for by shocks that affect the prices of primary commodities such as oil, aluminum, maize, or copper. Our analysis implies that existing models used to analyze real exchange rates between large economies that mostly focus on trade between differentiated ﬁnal goods could benefit, in terms of matching the behavior of real exchange rates, by also considering trade in primary commodities.
Palabra clave: Primary commodity prices and Real exchange rate disconnect puzzle Tema: F31 - Foreign Exchange and F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics
Creator: Ayres, João, Hevia, Constantino, and Nicolini, Juan Pablo Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 584 Abstract:
In this paper, we show that there is substantial comovement between prices of primary commodities such as oil, aluminum, maize, or copper and real exchange rates between developed economies such as Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom against the US dollar. We therefore explicitly consider the production of commodities in a two-country model of trade with productivity shocks and shocks to the supplies of commodities. We calibrate the model so as to reproduce the volatility and persistence of primary commodity prices and show that it delivers equilibrium real exchange rates that are as volatile and persistent as in the data. The model rationalizes an empirical strategy to identify the fraction of the variance of real exchange rates that can be accounted for by the underlying shocks, even if those are not observable. We use this strategy to argue that shocks that move primary commodity prices account for a large fraction of the volatility of real exchange rates in the data. Our analysis implies that existing models used to analyze real exchange rates between large economies that mostly focus on trade between differentiated final goods could benefit, in terms of matching the behavior of real exchange rates, by also considering trade in primary commodities.
Palabra clave: Real exchange rate disconnect puzzle and Primary commodity prices Tema: F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics and F31 - Foreign Exchange
Creator: Neumeyer, Pablo Andrés and Perri, Fabrizio Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 335 Abstract:
We find that in a sample of emerging economies business cycles are more volatile than in developed ones, real interest rates are countercyclical and lead the cycle, consumption is more volatile than output and net exports are strongly countercyclical. We present a model of a small open economy, where the real interest rate is decomposed in an international rate and a country risk component. Country risk is affected by fundamental shocks but, through the presence of working capital, also amplifies the effects of those shocks. The model generates business cycles consistent with Argentine data. Eliminating country risk lowers Argentine output volatility by 27% while stabilizing international rates lowers it by less than 3%.
Palabra clave: Working capital, International business cycles, Financial crises, Country risk, and Sudden stops Tema: F32 - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements, F41 - Open Economy Macroeconomics, and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles