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Creator: Williamson, Stephen D. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 382 Abstract:
A model with private information is constructed that supports conventional arguments for a government monopoly in supplying circulating media of exchange. The model also yields predictions, including rate-of-return dominance of circulating media of exchange, that are consistent with observations from free banking regimes and fiat money regimes. In a laissez faire banking equilibrium, fiat money is not valued, and the resulting allocation is not Pareto optimal. However, if private agents are restricted from issuing circulating notes, there exists an equilibrium with valued fiat money that Pareto dominates the laissez faire equilibrium and is constrained Pareto optimal.
Palabra clave: Currency, Fiat money, Assymetric information, Monetary economics, Monetary exchange, Private information, Laissez faire banking, Free banking, and Money Tema: D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design and E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
Creator: Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro and Wright, Randall D. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 464 Abstract:
The classical and early neoclassical economists knew that the essential function of money was its role as a medium of exchange. Recently, this idea has been formalized using search-theoretic noncooperative equilibrium models of the exchange process. The goal of this paper is to use a simple model of this class to analyze four substantive issues in monetary economics: the interaction between specialization and exchange, dual fiat currency regimes, the welfare improving role of money, and the susceptibility of monetary economies to extrinsic uncertainty.
Palabra clave: Fiat currency, Exchange, Monetary economics, Fiat money, and Money Tema: D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness and E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General
Creator: Miller, Preston J. and Todd, Richard M. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 481 Abstract:
This paper investigates the effects of changes in a country's monetary policies on its economy and the welfare of its citizens and those of other countries. Each country is populated by two-period lived overlapping agents who reside in either a home service sector or a world-traded good sector. Policy effects are transmitted through changes in the real interest rate, relative prices, and price levels. Welfare effects are sometimes dominated by relative price movements and can thus be opposite of those found in one-good models. Simulation of dynamic paths also reveals that welfare effects for some types of agents reverse between those born in immediate post-shock periods and those born later.
Palabra clave: Exchange rates, Real interest rates, Monetary policy, Prices, and Relative prices Tema: E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation, F31 - Foreign Exchange, and E52 - Monetary Policy
Creator: Miller, Preston J. and Todd, Richard M. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 494 Abstract:
This paper investigates the macroeconomic and welfare effects of a particular public finance decision. That decision was to use debt rather than current taxation to finance deposit insurance payments related to the savings and loan debacle. We find that this decision could have significantly raised real interest rates and affected welfare. The analysis is conducted in a dynamic, open-economy, monetary general equilibrium model in which parameters are set based on empirical observations.
Palabra clave: Savings and loan, Welfare, Real interest rates, Deposit insurance, Government debt, Public finance, Taxation, and S & L Tema: H63 - National Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt and G21 - Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
Creator: Wallace, Neil Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 081 Abstract:
This paper argues that versions of Samuelson/Cass-Yaari overlapping-generations consumption-loans models ought to be taken seriously as models of fiat money. The case is made by summarizing and interpreting what these models have to say about fiat money and by arguing that these properties are robust in the sense that they can be expected to hold in any model of fiat money. Two of the properties establish the connection between, on the one hand, the existence of equilibria in which value is attached to a fixed stock of fiat money and, on the other hand, the optimality of such equilibria and the nonoptimality of nonfiat-money equilibria. Other properties describe aspects of the tenuousness of monetary equilibria in such models: The nonuniqueness of such equilibria in the sense that there always exists a nonfiat-money equilibrium and the dependence of the existence of the monetary equilibrium on the physical characteristics of other potential assets and on other institutional features like the tax-transfer scheme in effect. Rather than being defects of these models, it is argued that this tenuousness is helpful in interpreting various monetary systems and, in any case, is unavoidable; it will turn up in any good model of fiat money. Still other properties summarize what these models imply about the connection—or, better, lack of such— between fiat money and private borrowing and lending (financial intermediation) and what they imply about country-specific monies.
Palabra clave: Valued fiat money, Overlapping-generations models, and Pattern-of-exchange problem Tema: C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models and E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems
Creator: Kehoe, Timothy Jerome, 1953-, Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, and Wright, Randall D. Series: Monetary theory and financial intermediation Abstract:
We extend the analysis of Kiyotaki and Wright, who study an economy in which the different commodities that serve as media of exchange are determined endogenously. Kiyotaki and Wright consider only symmetric, steady-state, pure-strategy equilibria, and find that for some parameter values no such equilibria exist. We consider mixed-strategy equilibria and dynamic equilibria. We prove that a steady-state equilibrium exists for all parameter values and that the number of steady-state equilibria is generically finite. We also show, however, that there may be a continuum of dynamic equilibria. Further, some dynamic equilibria display cycles.
Tema: D51 - Exchange and Production Economies and E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General