Creator: Monnet, Cyril and Weber, Warren E. Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 25, No. 4 Abstract:
This study describes and reconciles two common, seemingly contradictory views about a key monetary policy relationship: that between money and interest rates. Data since 1960 for about 40 countries support the Fisher equation view, that these variables are positively related. But studies taking expectations into account support the liquidity effect view, that they are negatively related. A simple model incorporates both views and demonstrates that which view applies at any time depends on when the change in money occurs and how long the public expects it to last. A surprise money change that is not expected to change future money growth moves interest rates in the opposite direction; one that is expected to change future money growth moves interest rates in the same direction. The study also demonstrates that stating monetary policy as a rule for interest rates rather than money does not change the relationship between these variables.
Creator: Willes, Mark H. Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 2, No. 4
Creator: Sargent, Thomas J. and Wallace, Neil Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 211 Abstract:
In a general equilibrium setting, we study versions of the proposal to pay interest on reserves at the market rate. We argue that the proposal makes the demand for total reserves indeterminate whether interest is paid on total reserves or on required reserves only. One consequence is that tax financing of the proposal gives rise to a continuum of equilibria, equilibria which differ in real returns and consumption allocations. Another consequence is that an attempt to finance the proposal through earnings on the central bank’s portfolio either gives rise to an equilibrium with a zero nominal interest rate or fails to give rise to an equilibrium.
Keyword: Reserves, General equilibrium models, and Interest rates Subject (JEL): E43 - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects and D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
Creator: Litterman, Robert B. and Weiss, Laurence M. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 179 Keyword: Money supply, Inflation, Short term rates, and Ex ante rates Subject (JEL): E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers and E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General
Creator: Adão, Bernardino, Correia, Isabel, and Teles, Pedro Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 680 Abstract:
We show that short and long nominal interest rates are independent monetary policy instruments. The pegging of both helps solving the problem of multiplicity that arises when only short rates are used as the instrument of policy. A peg of the nominal returns on assets of different maturities is equivalent to a peg of state-contingent interest rates. These are the rates that should be targeted in order to implement unique equilibria. At the zero bound, while it is still possible to target state-contingent interest rates, that is no longer equivalent to the target of the term structure.
Keyword: Sticky prices, Maturities, Long rates, Monetary policy instruments, Term structure, Short rates, Monetary policy, and Multiplicity of equilibria Subject (JEL): E50 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General, E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General, and E30 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data)
Creator: Hur, Sewon, Kondo, Illenin O., and Perri, Fabrizio Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 574 Abstract:
This paper argues that the comovement between inflation and economic activity is an important determinant of real interest rates over time and across countries. First, we show that for advanced economies, periods with more procyclical inflation are associated with lower real rates, but only when there is no risk of default on government debt. Second, we present a model of nominal sovereign debt with domestic risk-averse lenders. With procyclical inflation, nominal bonds pay out more in bad times, making them a good hedge against aggregate risk. In the absence of default risk, procyclical inflation yields lower real rates. However, procyclicality implies that the government needs to make larger (real) payments when the economy deteriorates, which could increase default risk and trigger an increase in real rates. The patterns of real rates predicted by the model are quantitatively consistent with those documented in the data.
Keyword: Sovereign default, Inflation risk, Nominal bonds, and Government debt Subject (JEL): F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems, E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and H63 - National Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt
Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 9, No. 1
Creator: Prescott, Edward C. and Wessel, Ryan Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 562 Abstract:
Businesses hold large quantities of cash reserves, which have average returns well below their investments in tangible capital. Businesses do this because these monetary assets provide services. One implication is that money services is a factor of production in capital theoretic valuation equilibrium models. Our aggregate production function is consistent with both the classical demand for money function relationship and with extended periods of near zero short-term nominal interest rates. In our model economy, there is a 100 percent reserve requirement on all demand deposits. Demand deposits are legal tender. We find (i) money services in the production function necessitates revisions in the national accounts; (ii) monetary and fiscal policy cannot be completely separated; (iii) for a given policy, equilibrium is either unique or does not exist; and (iv) Friedman’s monetary satiation is not optimal. We make quantitative comparisons between interest rate targeting regimes and between inflation rate targeting regimes. The best inflation rate target was 2 percent.
Keyword: Money in production function, Zero lower bound, Friedman monetary satiation, Inflation rate targeting, Interest rate targeting, and 100 percent reserve banking Subject (JEL): E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, E50 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General, E60 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General, and E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General
Creator: Prescott, Edward C. and Wessel, Ryan Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 530 Abstract:
We explore monetary policy in a world without currency. In our world, money is a form of government debt that bears interest, which can be negative as well as positive. Services of money are a factor of production. We show that the national accounts must be revised in this world. Using our baseline economy, we determine the balanced growth paths for a set of money interest rate target policy regimes. Besides this interest rate, the only policy variable that differs across regimes is either the labor income tax rate or the inflation rate. We find that Friedman monetary satiation without deflation is possible. We also examine a set of inflation rate targeting regimes. Here, the only other policy variable that differs across policy regimes is the tax rate. There is a sequence of markets with outcome in each market being a Debreu valuation equilibrium, which determines the vector of assets and liabilities households take into the subsequent period. Evaluating a policy regime is an advanced exercise in public finance. Monetary satiation is not optimal even though money is costless to produce. A preliminary version of this paper circulated under the title “Monetary Policy with 100 Percent Reserve Banking: An Exploration.”
Keyword: Money in production function, 100 percent reserve banking, Friedman monetary satiation, Inflation rate targeting, and Interest rate targeting Subject (JEL): E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, E50 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit: General, E60 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General, and E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General