Creator: Bryant, John B. and Wallace, Neil. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 189 Keyword: Prohibition, Government debt, Rate of return dominance, and Private currency Subject (JEL): E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy and E40 - Money and interest rates - General
Creator: Muench, Thomas J., Rolnick, Arthur J., 1944-, Wallace, Neil., and Weiler, William. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 19 Abstract:
Prediction interval tests are applied to the reduced forms of two quarterly models of the U.S. (the "old" FRB-MIT model and the Michigan model). The results illustrate the range of tests one can perform on an estimated simultaneous equation model. In particular, the tests determine whether ex post forecast errors can be attributed to structural deficiencies of the models. The paper examines confidence regions and other aspects of forecast distributions-comparisons between mean forecasts and nonstochastic forecasts, comparisons between ,forecast variances from multiperiod endogenous simulations and those from oneperiod simulations, and comparisons between forecast variances and residual variances.
Keyword: Michigan quarterly model, FRB-MIT quarterly model, and Monte Carlo experiment Subject (JEL): C30 - Multiple or simultaneous equation models - General, C52 - Econometric modeling - Model evaluation and selection, and C53 - Econometric modeling - Forecasting and other model applications
Creator: Bryant, John B. and Wallace, Neil. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 123 Abstract:
In "Open Market Operations in a Model of Regulated, Insured Intermediaries" [JPE, forthcoming] we show that once-for-all open market purchases need not be inflationary. Here we show this result can carry over to various stationary accommodation rules given stochastic deficits. In particular, the inflationary and deflationary effects of stochastic deficits are not offset by, nor welfare improved by, a monetary policy that leans toward monetarism. Moreover, a constant money growth rule is not in the class of stationary policies given the kind of stochastic deficit we analyze, which by itself is a serious indictment of the monetarist proposal.
Keyword: Accomodation rules, Debt, Monetarism, Inflation, and Deflation Subject (JEL): H62 - National budget, deficit, and debt - Deficit ; Surplus and E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers
Creator: Cole, Harold Linh, 1957- and Ohanian, Lee E. Series: Great depressions of the twentieth century Abstract:
There are two striking aspects of the recovery from the Great Depression in the United States: the recovery was very weak and real wages in several sectors rose significantly above trend. These data contrast sharply with neoclassical theory, which predicts a strong recovery with low real wages. We evaluate whether New Deal cartelization policies designed to limit competition among firms and increase labor bargaining power can account for the persistence of the Depression. We develop a model of the intraindustry bargaining process between labor and firms that occurred with these policies, and embed that model within a multi-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. We find that New Deal cartelization policies are an important factor in accounting for the post-1933 Depression. We also find that the key depressing element of New Deal policies was not collusion per se, but rather the link between paying high wages and collusion.
Keyword: New Deal, Great Depression, Competition, Cartels, Wages, and Collective bargaining Subject (JEL): D50 - General equilibrium and disequilibrium - General and J58 - Labor-management relations, trade unions, and collective bargaining - Public policy
Creator: Kehoe, Timothy J. and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Staff Report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 418 Abstract:
Three of the arguments made by Temin (2008) in his review of Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century are demonstrably wrong: that the treatment of the data in the volume is cursory; that the definition of great depressions is too general and, in particular, groups slow growth experiences in Latin America in the 1980s with far more severe great depressions in Europe in the 1930s; and that the book is an advertisement for the real business cycle methodology. Without these three arguments — which are the results of obvious conceptual and arithmetical errors, including copying the wrong column of data from a source — his review says little more than that he does not think it appropriate to apply our dynamic general equilibrium methodology to the study of great depressions, and he does not like the conclusion that we draw: that a successful model of a great depression needs to be able to account for the effects of government policy on productivity.
In 2008, Peter Temin wrote a review of the book that appeared in the Journal of Economic Literature. This staff report and accompanying data file are in response to the review.
Citation for review: Temin, Peter. 2008. "Real Business Cycle Views of the Great Depression and Recent Events: A Review of Timothy J. Kehoe and Edward C. Prescott's Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century." Journal of Economic Literature, 46 (3): 669-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/jel.46.3.669
Creator: Bryant, John B. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 168 Abstract:
A simple model of backed money without a store of value function is presented, discussed, and defended. The function of money in the model is to replace complex contingent contracts traded on a centralized exchange with simple trades in decentralized markets.
Keyword: Commodity money, Contracts, and Fiat money Subject (JEL): E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General and C10 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
Creator: Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus. and Rubio-Ramírez, Juan Francisco. Series: Joint committee on business and financial analysis Abstract:
This paper presents a method to perform likelihood-based inference in nonlinear dynamic equilibrium economies. This type of models has become a standard tool in quantitative economics. However, existing literature has been forced so far to use moment procedures or linearization techniques to estimate these models. This situation is unsatisfactory: moment procedures suffer from strong small samples biases and linearization depends crucially on the shape of the true policy functions, possibly leading to erroneous answers. We propose the use of Sequential Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the likelihood function implied by the model. Then we can perform likelihood-based inference, either searching for a maximum (Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation) or simulating the posterior using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (Bayesian Estimation). We can also compare different models even if they are nonnested and misspecified. To perform classical model selection, we follow Vuong (1989) and use the Kullback-Leibler distance to build Likelihood Ratio Tests. To perform Bayesian model comparison, we build Bayes factors. As an application, we estimate the stochastic neoclassical growth model.
Keyword: Likelihood-based inference, Dynamic equilibrium economies, Sequential Monte Carlo methods, and Nonlinear filtering Subject (JEL): C15 - Statistical Simulation Methods: General, C13 - Estimation: General, C10 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General, and C11 - Bayesian Analysis: General