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  • 9306sz32c?file=thumbnail
    Creator: Diba, Behzad. and Oh, Seonghwan.
    Series: Business analysis committee meeting
    Abstract: This paper reports some empirical evidence on the relation between the expected real interest rate and monetary aggregates in postwar U.S. data. We find some evidence against the hypothesis, implied by the Real Business Cycle model of Litterman and Weiss (1985), that the expected real interest rate follows a univariate autoregressive process, not Granger-caused by monetary aggregates. Our findings, however, are consistent with a more general bivariate model--suggested by what Barro (1987, Chapter 5) refers to as "the basic market-clearing model"--in which the real rate depends on its own lagged values and on lagged output. Taking this bivariate model as our null hypothesis, we find no evidence that money-stock changes have a significant liquidity effect on the expected real interest rate.
    Subject: E43 - Money and interest rates - Determination of interest rates ; Term structure of interest rates, E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers, and E32 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Business fluctuations ; Cycles
  • 5d86p025z?file=thumbnail
    Creator: Weber, Warren E.
    Description:

    This spreadsheet contains the disaggregated national bank call reports by state and reserve city for each call report date. These data appear as compiled by the Comptroller of the Currency. These data are a “cleaned” version of the data published in the Annual Reports of the Comptroller of the Currency. Where assets and liabilities were not equal for a state or reserve city in the original, they have been corrected to be equal in this data set. This was done by comparing for each asset and liability category differences between totals as reported by the Comptroller and totals category obtained by aggregating the individual state and reserve city data. It should also be noted that aggregates for the entire National Banking System should be based on the individual data in this dataset and not those reported by the Comptroller. After 1900 the dates for the data for Alaska and Hawaii that the Comptroller used in his totals do not match the dates given in the individual state reports.

  • Dr26xx39d?file=thumbnail
    Creator: Boyd, John H. and Gertler, Mark.
    Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.)
    Number: 531
    Abstract: This paper reexamines the conventional wisdom that commercial banking is an industry in severe decline. We find that a careful reading of the evidence does not justify this conclusion. It is true that on-balance sheet assets held by commercial banks have declined as a share of total intermediary assets. But this measure overstates any drop in banking, for three reasons. First, it ignores the rapid growth in commercial banks' off-balance sheet activities. Second, it fails to take account of the substantial growth in off-shore C&I lending by foreign banks. Third, it ignores the fact that over the last several decades financial intermediation has grown rapidly relative to the rest of the economy. We find that after adjusting the measure of bank assets to account for these considerations there is no clear evidence of secular decline. To corroborate these findings, we also construct an alternative measure of the importance of banking, using data from the National Income Accounts. Again, we find no clear evidence of a sustained declined. At most the industry may have suffered a slight loss of market share over the last decade. But as we discuss, this loss may reflect a transitory response to a series of adverse shocks and the phasing in of new regulatory requirements, rather than the beginning of a permanent decline.
    Keyword: Bank assets, Commercial banks, Intermediation, Lending, and Banking
    Subject: G21 - Financial institutions and services - Banks ; Other depository institutions ; Micro finance institutions ; Mortgages
  • G445cd15v?file=thumbnail
    Creator: Boyd, John H. and Gertler, Mark.
    Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.)
    Number: 531
    Abstract: This paper reexamines the conventional wisdom that commercial banking is an industry in severe decline. We find that a careful reading of the evidence does not justify this conclusion. It is true that on-balance sheet assets held by commercial banks have declined as a share of total intermediary assets. But this measure overstates any drop in banking, for three reasons. First, it ignores the rapid growth in commercial banks' off-balance sheet activities. Second, it fails to take account of the substantial growth in off-shore C&I lending by foreign banks. Third, it ignores the fact that over the last several decades financial intermediation has grown rapidly relative to the rest of the economy. We find that after adjusting the measure of bank assets to account for these considerations there is no clear evidence of secular decline. To corroborate these findings, we also construct an alternative measure of the importance of banking, using data from the National Income Accounts. Again, we find no clear evidence of a sustained declined. At most the industry may have suffered a slight loss of market share over the last decade. But as we discuss, this loss may reflect a transitory response to a series of adverse shocks and the phasing in of new regulatory requirements, rather than the beginning of a permanent decline.
    Keyword: Bank assets, Commercial banks, Intermediation, Lending, and Banking
    Subject: G21 - Financial institutions and services - Banks ; Other depository institutions ; Micro finance institutions ; Mortgages
  • Description:

    This data set consists of individual bank balance sheets for the antebellum period in the United States compiled from reports of state banking authorities. The data set is updated periodically. For each state, data are available in two forms. The worksheet “detailed” contains the data in as detailed a form as in the original source. In the worksheet “standardized”, data are presented in a consistent set of asset and liability categories for each bank.

    In the compilation, individual asset and liability categories have been preserved as much as possible. The data have also been modified in two primary ways: •Where the original data have both differences between assets and liabilities for a given bank and corresponding differences in reported aggregated totals for individual asset/liability categories, the data have been changed to eliminate such differences. •Where the original data have obvious inaccuracies (e.g., capital of $100,000 for several years in a row and then $10,000 for one year), such inaccuracies have been corrected.

    Note also that for many dates, aggregate totals for individual asset/liability categories do not match reported data, presumably due to calculation and other errors by the original compilers.

    Some of the downloadable Excel files that follow use Pre-1900 dates that Excel does not natively handle.

    The financial assistance of the Financial Services Research Group of the Federal Reserve System in compiling this data set is gratefully acknowledged.

    Data compiled by Warren Weber.

  • Description:

    Warren Weber joined the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis in 1981 and served as senior research officer in the Research Department from 1989 to 2012, when he retired. Before joining the Bank, he taught economics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Tulane University and Duke University. He also has been an adjunct economics professor at the University of Minnesota. Warren's M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are from Carnegie-Mellon University. His research agenda focuses on monetary and banking theory and history, with particular emphasis on banking in the United States before 1861. Weber is currently a Visiting Scholar at the Bank of Canada and the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and a Visiting Professor at the University of South Carolina.

    The Warren E. Weber Historical Data Archives consists of data collected by Weber while at the Minneapolis Fed including banknote discounts, disaggregated call reports, census of state banks, railroad stock prices, international data, and antebellum U.S. state bank balance sheets.