Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao and Eckstein, Zvi Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 525 Abstract:
This paper is motivated by observations concerning the size of the banking sector and the growth rate of the economy before and after successful stabilizations of high inflations. The facts suggest that the relative size of the banking sector increases during a period of accelerating inflation and decreases immediately following a successful monetary stabilization. Furthermore, the GDP growth rate is lower during the high inflation period than after stabilization. The goal of this paper is to develop a monetary growth model which is qualitatively consistent with these observations. The model we use is a variant of the Lucas and Stokey (1987) model of cash and credit goods. The main innovation in our model is that while cash goods and credit goods are perfect substitutes in consumption we posit different technologies for their production. We show that the model’s predictions on the impact of a permanent stabilization are consistent with the main real and monetary observations on high inflation countries.
Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 312 Abstract:
This paper studies the relationship between the existence and optimality of a monetary steady-state and the nonoptimality of nonmonetary steady-states. We construct a sequence of stationary overlapping generations economies with longer and longer lived generations in which all agents maximize a discounted sum of utilities with a common discount rate. Under some assumptions the following result is established: If the discount rate is greater (less) than the population growth rate, then eventually every nonmonetary steady-state is optimal (non-optimal) and a monetary steady-state does not exist (exists and is optimal).
Creator: Backus, David and Kehoe, Patrick J. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 318 Abstract:
These notes are intended as a do-it-yourself course in economic growth along lines suggested by Lucas ("On the Mechanics of Economic Development"). We examine in turn the neoclassical growth model; theories of endogenous growth, including learning-by-doing, increasing returns to scale, and externalities; and dynamic comparative advantage in trade. Salient features of growing economies and microeconomic evidence on production processes are used to evaluate alternatives. Exercises supplement the text.
Stichwort: Technical change, Neoclassical growth, Dynamic comparative advantage, Learning-by-doing, and Returns to scale Fach: F11 - Neoclassical Models of Trade, O33 - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes, and O42 - Monetary Growth Models
Creator: Gomme, Paul, 1961- Series: Economic growth and development Abstract:
Results in Lucas (1987) suggest that if public policy can affect the growth rate of the economy, the welfare implications of alternative policies will be large. In this paper, a stochastic, dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous growth and money is examined. In this setting, inflation lowers growth through its effect on the return to work. However, the welfare costs of higher inflation are extremely modest.
Fach: E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation and O42 - Economic growth and aggregate productivity - Monetary growth models
Creator: Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban and Wright, Mark L. J. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 381 Abstract:
Most economic activity occurs in cities. This creates a tension between local increasing returns, implied by the existence of cities, and aggregate constant returns, implied by balanced growth. To address this tension, we develop a general equilibrium theory of economic growth in an urban environment. In our theory, variation in the urban structure through the growth, birth, and death of cities is the margin that eliminates local increasing returns to yield constant returns to scale in the aggregate. We show that, consistent with the data, the theory produces a city size distribution that is well approximated by Zipf’s Law, but that also displays the observed systematic under-representation of both very small and very large cities. Using our model, we show that the dispersion of city sizes is consistent with the dispersion of productivity shocks found in the data.
Stichwort: Scale Effects, Balanced Growth, Zip's Law, Gibrat's Law, Economic Growth, and Size Distribution of Cities Fach: E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General, O40 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity: General, and R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: General
Creator: Kehoe, Timothy Jerome, 1953- and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 418 Abstract:
Three of the arguments made by Temin (2008) in his review of Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century are demonstrably wrong: that the treatment of the data in the volume is cursory; that the definition of great depressions is too general and, in particular, groups slow growth experiences in Latin America in the 1980s with far more severe great depressions in Europe in the 1930s; and that the book is an advertisement for the real business cycle methodology. Without these three arguments — which are the results of obvious conceptual and arithmetical errors, including copying the wrong column of data from a source — his review says little more than that he does not think it appropriate to apply our dynamic general equilibrium methodology to the study of great depressions, and he does not like the conclusion that we draw: that a successful model of a great depression needs to be able to account for the effects of government policy on productivity.
Stichwort: Economic fluctuations, General equilibrium models, and Depressions Fach: N10 - Economic History: Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations: General, International, or Comparative and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
Creator: Schreft, Stacey Lee and Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 562 Abstract:
We examine an otherwise standard model of capital accumulation to which spatial separation and limited communication create a role for money and shocks to portfolio needs create a role for banks. In this context we examine the existence, multiplicity, and dynamical properties of monetary equilibria with positive nominal interest rates. Moderate levels of risk aversion can lead to the existence of multiple monetary steady states, all of which can be approached from a given set of initial conditions. In addition, even if there is a unique monetary steady state, monetary equilibria can be indeterminate, and oscillatory equilibrium paths can be observed. Thus financial market frictions are a potential source of both indeterminacies and endogenously arising economic volatility.
We also consider the consequences of monetary policy actions that rearrange the composition of government liabilities. Contractionary monetary policy activities can have complicated consequences, depending especially on the nature of the steady state equilibrium that obtains when there are multiple steady states. Under plausible conditions, however, a permanent contractionary change in monetary policy raises both the nominal rate of interest and the rate of inflation, and reduces long-run output levels. Thus liquidity provision by a central bank—just as by the banking system as a whole—can be growth promoting. Loose monetary policy also is conducive to avoiding development trap phenomena.
Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao and Braun, R. Anton Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 565 Abstract:
We consider the nature of optimal cyclical monetary policy in three different stochastic models with various shocks. The first is a pure liquidity effect model, the second is a cost of changing prices model, and the third is an optimal seinorage model. In each case we solve for the optimal monetary policy and describe how money growth and interest rates respond to shocks under the optimal policy. The shocks we consider are money demand shocks, productivity shocks, and government consumption shocks. All of the models have the feature that the Friedman rule of setting the nominal interest rate to zero is not optimal. Optimal policies are always time inconsistent even though lump sum taxation is allowed. At least in some instances we find that optimal policy dictates responses of money growth and interest rates which run counter to conventional wisdom.