Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 319 Abstract:
We consider the existence of deterministically cycling steady state equilibria in a class of stationary overlapping generations models with sufficiently long (but, finite) lived agents. Preferences are of the discounted sum of utilities type with a fixed discount rate. Utility functions with large coefficients of relative risk aversion which generate strong income effects (relative to substitution effects) and backward bending offer curves are permitted. Lifetime endowment patterns are quite arbitrary. We show that if agents have a positive discount rate, then as agents1 lifespans get large, short period non-monetary cycles will disappear. Further, constant monetary steady states do not exist and therefore, neither do stationary monetary cycles of any period. We then consider the case where agents have a negative discount rate and show that there are robust examples in which constant monetary steady states as well as stationary monetary cycles (with undiminished amplitude) can occur no matter how long agents live.
Keyword: Longevity, Business cycles, Intertemporal choice, and Monetary theory Subject (JEL): D91 - Intertemporal choice and growth - Intertemporal consumer choice ; Life cycle models and saving and N10 - Macroeconomics and monetary economics ; Growth and fluctuations - General, international, or comparative
Creator: Chari, V. V. and Kehoe, Patrick J. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 317 Abstract:
This paper examines the limiting behavior of cooperative and noncooperative fiscal policies as countries market power goes to zero. In the first part we provide sufficient conditions for these policies to converge. In the second part we provide examples where these policies diverge. Briefly, we show that if there are unremovable domestic distortions then there can be gains to coordination between countries even when countries have no ability to affect world prices. These results are at variance with the received wisdom in the optimal tariff literature. The key distinction is that we model explicitly the spending decisions of the government while the optimal tariff literature does not.
Keyword: International economic relations and Fiscal policy Subject (JEL): F42 - Macroeconomic aspects of international trade and finance - International policy coordination and transmission and N10 - Macroeconomics and monetary economics ; Growth and fluctuations - General, international, or comparative
Creator: Goodfriend, Marvin. and McDermott, John H. Series: Economic growth and development Abstract:
We explain how a long period of slow pre-industrial development triggers an Industrial Revolution that leads to modern balanced growth. Development in the preindustrial period is driven by increasing returns to specialization made possible by a growing population. Increasing access to specialized intermediate goods eventually makes fundamental technological innovation possible. Innovation initiates the Industrial Revolution, after which productivity grows endogenously regardless of population growth. Industrialization reconciles the crucial role of population early on with its weak relation to per capita product in developed economies. Faster population growth speeds early development, though if it results from a highly productive primitive technology, the consequences for development are ambiguous.
Keyword: Growth and Industrial Revolution Subject (JEL): N10 - Macroeconomics and monetary economics ; Growth and fluctuations - General, international, or comparative and O11 - Economic development - Macroeconomic analyses of economic development