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Creator: Kaplan, Greg Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 675 Abstract:
This paper examines the relationship between the dynamics of parent-youth living arrangements and labor market outcomes for youths who do not go to college in the United States. The data come from a newly constructed panel data set based on retrospective monthly coresidence questions in the NLSY97. This is the first data set containing information on the labor market circumstances of youths at the time of movements in and out of the parental home. Based on estimates from duration models that allow for unobserved heterogeneity, I find that moving from employment to non-employment increases the hazard of moving back home in a given month by 64% for males and 71% for females. These results suggest that labor market factors play an important role in determining the dynamics of parent-youth living arrangements and that coresidence may be an important way in which insurance against labor market shocks takes place within the family.
Mot-clé: Intergenerational support, Cohabitation family, Duration models, and Parental coresidence Assujettir: J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth, C41 - Duration Analysis; Optimal Timing Strategies, J20 - Demand and Supply of Labor: General, and J12 - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure; Domestic Abuse
Creator: Fernandez, Raquel, 1959- and Fogli, Alessandra Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 361 Abstract:
We study the effect of culture on important economic outcomes by using the 1970 census to examine the work and fertility behavior of women born in the U.S. but whose parents were born elsewhere. We use past female labor force participation and total fertility rates from the country of ancestry as our cultural proxies. These variables should capture, in addition to past economic and institutional conditions, the beliefs commonly held about the role of women in society (i.e., culture). Given the different time and place, only the beliefs embodied in the cultural proxies should be potentially relevant. We show that these cultural proxies have positive and significant explanatory power for individual work and fertility outcomes, even after controlling for possible indirect effects of culture. We examine alternative hypotheses for these positive correlations and show that neither unobserved human capital nor networks are likely to be responsible.
Mot-clé: Neighborhoods, Immigrants, Networks, Female labor force participation, Family, Cultural transmission, and Fertility Assujettir: Z13 - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification, J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply, J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity, J16 - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination, and J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Creator: Boldrin, Michele, De Nardi, Mariacristina, and Jones, Larry E. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 359 Abstract:
The data show that an increase in government provided old-age pensions is strongly correlated with a reduction in fertility. What type of model is consistent with this finding? We explore this question using two models of fertility: one by Barro and Becker (1989), and one inspired by Caldwell (1978, 1982) and developed by Boldrin and Jones (2002). In Barro and Becker’s model parents have children because they perceive their children’s lives as a continuation of their own. In Boldrin and Jones’ framework parents procreate because children care about their parents’ utility, and thus provide them with old-age transfers. The effect of increases in government provided pensions on fertility in the Barro and Becker model is very small, whereas the effect on fertility in the Boldrin and Jones model is sizeable and accounts for between 55 and 65% of the observed Europe-U.S. fertility differences both across countries and across time.
Mot-clé: Fertility, Intra-family transfers, Financial Markets, and Social Security Assujettir: E10 - General Aggregative Models: General, J10 - Demographic Economics: General, O10 - Economic Development: General, and J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
Creator: Doepke, Matthias and Zilibotti, Fabrizio Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 354 Abstract:
We develop a positive theory of the adoption of child labor laws. Workers who compete with children in the labor market support the introduction of a child labor ban, unless their own working children provide a large fraction of family income. Since child labor income depends on family size, fertility decisions lock agents into specific political preferences, and multiple steady states can arise. The introduction of child labor laws can be triggered by skill-biased technological change that induces parents to choose smaller families. The model replicates features of the history of the U.K. in the nineteenth century, when regulations were introduced after a period of rising wage inequality, and coincided with rapidly declining fertility rates.
Mot-clé: Inequality, Fertility, Voting, and Child Labor Assujettir: J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity, J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth, and J82 - Labor Standards: Labor Force Composition