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Creator: Koijen, Ralph S. J. and Yogo, Motohiro Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 510 Abstract:
We develop an asset pricing model with flexible heterogeneity in asset demand across investors, designed to match institutional and household holdings. A portfolio choice model implies characteristics-based demand when returns have a factor structure and expected returns and factor loadings depend on the assets' own characteristics. We propose an instrumental variables estimator for the characteristics-based demand system to address the endogeneity of demand and asset prices. Using U.S. stock market data, we illustrate how the model could be used to understand the role of institutions in asset market movements, volatility, and predictability.
Palabra clave: Institutional investors, Liquidity, Asset pricing model, Portfolio choice, and Demand system Tema: G23 - Pension Funds; Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors and G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
Creator: Chari, V. V. and Christiano, Lawrence J. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 552 Abstract:
The ﬁnancialization view is that increased trading in commodity futures markets is associated with increases in the growth rate and volatility of commodity spot prices. This view gained credence be-cause in the 2000s trading volume increased sharply and many commodity prices rose and became more volatile. Using a large panel dataset we constructed, which includes commodities with and with-out futures markets, we ﬁnd no empirical link between increased futures market trading and changes in price behavior. Our data sheds light on the economic role of futures markets. The conventional view is that futures markets provide one-way insurance by allowing outsiders, traders with no direct interest in a commodity, to insure insiders, traders with a direct interest. The data are not consistent with the conventional view and we argue that they point to an alternative mutual insurance view, in which all participants insure each other. We formalize this view in a model and show that it is consistent with key features of the data.
Palabra clave: Net financial flows, Spot price volatility, Futures market returns, and Open interest Tema: G23 - Pension Funds; Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and E02 - Institutions and the Macroeconomy
Creator: Arellano, Cristina, Bai, Yan, Bocola, Luigi, and test Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 547 Abstract:
This paper measures the output costs of sovereign risk by combining a sovereign debt model with firm- and bank-level data. In our framework, an increase in sovereign risk lowers the price of government debt and has an adverse impact on banks’ balance sheets, disrupting their ability to finance firms. Importantly, firms are not equally affected by these developments: those that have greater financing needs and borrow from banks that are more exposed to government debt cut their production the most in a debt crisis. We measure the extent of this heterogeneity using Italian data and parameterize the model to match these cross-sectional facts. In counterfactual analysis, we find that heightened sovereign risk was responsible for one-third of the observed output decline during the 2011-2012 crisis in Italy.
Palabra clave: Sovereign debt crises, Firm heterogeneity, Financial intermediation, Business cycles, and Micro data Tema: E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, F34 - International Lending and Debt Problems, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and G15 - International Financial Markets
Creator: Mehra, Rajnish, Piguillem, Facundo, and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 655 Abstract:
There is a large amount of intermediated borrowing and lending between households. Some of it is intergenerational, but most is between older households. The average difference in borrowing and lending rates is over 2 percent. In this paper, we develop a model economy that displays these facts and matches not only the returns on assets but also their quantities. The heterogeneity giving rise to borrowing and lending and differences in equity holdings depends on differences in the strength of the bequest motive. In equilibrium, the lenders are annuity holders and the borrowers are those who have equity holdings, who live off its income when retired, and who leave a bequest. The borrowing rate and return on equity are the same in the absence of aggregate uncertainty. The divergence between borrowing and lending rates can thus give rise to an equity premium, even in a world without aggregate uncertainty.
Palabra clave: Retirement, Equity premium, Government debt, Borrowing, Aggregate intermediation, Life cycle savings, and Lending Tema: H62 - National Deficit; Surplus, G23 - Pension Funds; Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors, G11 - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions, D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions, E21 - Macroeconomics: Consumption; Saving; Wealth, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, E20 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy: General (includes Measurement and Data), E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy, H00 - Public Economics: General, and G10 - General Financial Markets: General (includes Measurement and Data)
Creator: Wallace, Neil Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 347 Descripción:
The Harry G. Johnson Lecture, presented at the 1987 A.U.T.E. and the Royal Economic Society Conference, Aberyswyth, April 1-4.
Palabra clave: Monetary theory, Inside money, Assets, Outside money, Equilibrium model, and Currency Tema: E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General and G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
Creator: Jagannathan, Ravi and Wang, Zhenyu Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 517 Abstract:
In empirical studies of the CAPM, it is commonly assumed that (a) the return to the value weighted portfolio of all stocks is a reasonable proxy for the return on the market portfolio of all assets in the economy, and (b) betas of assets remain constant over time. Under these assumptions, Fama and French (1992) find that the relation between average return and beta is flat. We argue that these two auxiliary assumptions are not reasonable. We demonstrate that when these assumptions are relaxed, the empirical support for the CAPM is surprisingly strong. When human capital is also included in measuring wealth, the CAPM is able to explain 28 percent of the cross sectional variation in average returns in the 100 portfolios studied by Fama and French. When, in addition, betas are allowed to vary over the business cycle, the CAPM is able to explain 57 percent. More important, relative size does not explain what is left unexplained after taking sampling errors into account.
Palabra clave: Stock prices and Capital Tema: G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
Creator: Lagos, Ricardo and Zhang, Shengxing Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 734 Abstract:
We provide empirical evidence of a novel liquidity-based transmission mechanism through which monetary policy influences asset markets, develop a model of this mechanism, and assess the ability of the quantitative theory to match the evidence.
Palabra clave: Asset prices, Monetary policy, Monetary transmission, and Liquidity Tema: E52 - Monetary Policy, D83 - Search; Learning; Information and Knowledge; Communication; Belief; Unawareness, and G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
Creator: McGrattan, Ellen R. and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 610 Abstract:
U.S. stock prices have increased much faster than gross domestic product GDP) in the postwar period. Between 1962 and 2000, corporate equity value relative to GDP nearly doubled. In this paper, we determine what standard growth theory says the equity value should be in 1962 and 2000, the two years for which our steady-state assumption is a reasonable one. We find that the actual valuations were close to the theoretical predictions in both years. The reason for the large run-up in equity value relative to GDP is that the average tax rate on dividends fell dramatically between 1962 and 2000. We also find that, given legal constraints that effectively prohibited the holding of stocks as reserves for pension plans, there is no equity premium puzzle in the postwar period. The average returns on debt and equity are as theory predicts.
Tema: E13 - General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and H30 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents: General
Creator: McGrattan, Ellen R. and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 294 Abstract:
Many stock market analysts think that in 1929, at the time of the crash, stocks were overvalued. Irving Fisher argued just before the crash that fundamentals were strong and the stock market was undervalued. In this paper, we use growth theory to estimate the fundamental value of corporate equity and compare it to actual stock valuations. Our estimate is based on values of productive corporate capital, both tangible and intangible, and tax rates on corporate income and distributions. The evidence strongly suggests that Fisher was right. Even at the 1929 peak, stocks were undervalued relative to the prediction of theory.
Tema: N22 - Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: U.S.; Canada: 1913-, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and E62 - Fiscal Policy