Creator: Wallace, Neil. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 81 Abstract:
This paper argues that versions of Samuelson/Cass-Yaari overlapping-generations consumption-loans models ought to be taken seriously as models of fiat money. The case is made by summarizing and interpreting what these models have to say about fiat money and by arguing that these properties are robust in the sense that they can be expected to hold in any model of fiat money. Two of the properties establish the connection between, on the one hand, the existence of equilibria in which value is attached to a fixed stock of fiat money and, on the other hand, the optimality of such equilibria and the nonoptimality of nonfiat-money equilibria. Other properties describe aspects of the tenuousness of monetary equilibria in such models: The nonuniqueness of such equilibria in the sense that there always exists a nonfiat-money equilibrium and the dependence of the existence of the monetary equilibrium on the physical characteristics of other potential assets and on other institutional features like the tax-transfer scheme in effect. Rather than being defects of these models, it is argued that this tenuousness is helpful in interpreting various monetary systems and, in any case, is unavoidable; it will turn up in any good model of fiat money. Still other properties summarize what these models imply about the connection—or, better, lack of such— between fiat money and private borrowing and lending (financial intermediation) and what they imply about country-specific monies.
Keyword: Valued fiat money, Pattern-of-exchange problem, and Overlapping-generations models Subject (JEL): E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems and C68 - Mathematical methods and programming - Computable general equilibrium models
Creator: Manuelli, Rodolfo E. and Wallace, Neil. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 252 Abstract:
We study an overlapping generations model which contains a capital good that resembles actual gold. This capital good can he stored without physically depreciating and can, by using other resources, be converted back and forth between gold jewelry which yields utility directly and raw gold which does not. Under the assumption that the three utility-yielding objects—first and second period consumption and jewelry—are gross substitutes, stationary equilibria are shown to exist and are characterized; for some parameter values, there are inefficient equilibria, while for others there are efficient equilibria. Both types can be interpreted as commodity money equilibria.
Cover note : "An earlier version of this paper was presented at a seminar at MIT."
Keyword: Capital goods, Commodity money system, Commodities, Commodity prices, Commodity money equilibrium, and Overlapping generations model Subject (JEL): E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems and D51 - General equilibrium and disequilibrium - Exchange and production economies
Creator: Lacker, Jeffrey Malcolm. and Schreft, Stacey Lee Series: Monetary theory and financial intermediation Abstract:
We describe a stochastic economic environment in which the mix of money and trade credit used as means of payment is endogenous. The economy has an infinite horizon, spatial separation and a credit-related transaction cost, but no capital. We find that the equilibrium prices of arbitrary contingent claims to future currency differ from those from one-good cash-in-advance models. This anomaly is directly related to the endogeneity of the mix of media of exchange used. In particular, nominal interest rates affect the risk-free real rate of return. The model also has implications for some long-standing issues in monetary policy and for time series analysis using money and trade credit.
Subject (JEL): G12 - General financial markets - Asset pricing ; Trading volume ; Bond interest rates and E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems
Creator: Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro., Matsui, Akihiko., and Matsuyama, Kiminori. Series: Monetary theory and financial intermediation Abstract:
Our goal is to provide a theoretical framework in which both positive and normative aspects of international currency can be addressed in a systematic way. To this end, we use the framework of random matching games and develop a two country model of the world economy, in which two national fiat currencies compete and may be circulated as media of exchange. There are multiple equilibria, which differ in the areas of circulation of the two currencies. In one equilibrium, the two national currencies are circulated only locally. In another, one of the national currencies is circulated as an international currency. There is also an equilibrium in which both currencies are accepted internationally. We also find an equilibrium in which the two currencies are directly exchanged. The existence conditions of these equilibria are characterized, using the relative country size and the degree of economic integration as the key parameters. In order to generate sharper predictions in the presence of multiple equilibria, we discuss an evolutionary approach to equilibrium selection, which is used to explain the evolution of the international currency as the two economies become more integrated. Some welfare implications are also discussed. For example, a country can improve its national welfare by letting its own currency circulated internationally, provided the domestic circulation is controlled for. When the total supply is fixed, however, a resulting currency shortage may reduce the national welfare.
Keyword: Best response dynamics, Random matching games, Money as a medium of exchange, Evolution of international currency, and Multiple currencies Subject (JEL): F31 - International finance - Foreign exchange, C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory, E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems, and D51 - General equilibrium and disequilibrium - Exchange and production economies
Creator: Lacker, Jeffrey Malcolm. Series: Foundations of policy toward electronic money Abstract:
Briefly reviews the potential consequences of electronic money for the management of the government's balance sheet through open market operations and for the regulations governing the public and private issue of payment instruments.
Keyword: Monetary policy, Electronic money, and Payment instruments Subject (JEL): E58 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Central banks and their policies, E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy, and E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems
Creator: Weinberg, John A. Series: Foundations of policy toward electronic money Abstract:
As a network, a payment system is likely to exhibit network externalities and perhaps some public good characteristics. Such properties may be more pronounced in an electronic payment system, because of its greater reliance on communication infrastructures with high fixed and low variable costs, for instance. This paper presents the basic economics of network externalities and reviews some basic principles regarding public goods. It then asks what these phenomena imply about the role of the Federal Reserve in emerging payment systems. The general conclusion is that there is reason to be skeptical that network externalities and public goods will be significant sources of market failure in electronic payment systems. These phenomena, by themselves, give rise to no particular, essential central bank role in these markets.
Keyword: Network industries, Public goods, Electronic payment systems, Network externalities, Network services, Communication systems, Central banks, Payment systems, and Network markets Subject (JEL): E58 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Central banks and their policies and E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems