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Creator: Backus, David and Kehoe, Patrick J. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 145 Abstract:
We document properties of business cycles in ten countries over the last hundred years, contrasting the behavior of real quantities with that of the price level and the stock of money. Although the magnitude of output fluctuations has varied across countries and periods, relations among variables have been remarkably uniform. Consumption has generally been about as variable as output, and investment substantially more variable, and both have been strongly procyclical. The trade balance has generally been countercyclical. The exception to this regularity is government purchases, which exhibit no systematic cyclical tendency. With respect to the size of output fluctuations, standard deviations are largest between the two world wars. In some countries (notably Australia and Canada) they are substantially larger prior to World War I than after World War II, but in others (notably Japan and the United Kingdom) there is little difference between these periods. Properties of price levels, in contrast, exhibit striking differences between periods. Inflation rates are more persistent after World War II than before, and price level fluctuations are typically procyclical before World War II, countercyclical afterward. We find no general tendency toward increased persistence in money growth rates, but find that fluctuations in money are less highly correlated with output in the postwar period.
Soggetto: E31 - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
Creator: Braun, R. Anton and Evans, Charles, 1958- Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 168 Abstract:
We consider a dynamic, stochastic equilibrium business cycle model which is augmented to reflect seasonal shifts in preferences, technology, and government purchases. Our estimated parameterization implies implausibly large seasonal variation in the state of technology: rising at an annual rate of 24% in the fourth quarter and falling at an annual rate of 28% in the first quarter. Furthermore, our findings indicate that variation in the state of technology of this magnitude is required if the model is to explain the main features of the seasonal cycle.
Parola chiave: Solow residuals, Real business cycle, and Seasonality Soggetto: E20 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy: General (includes Measurement and Data) and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
Creator: Kydland, Finn E. and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 178 Abstract:
An economic experiment consists of the act of placing people in an environment desired by the experimenter, who then records the time paths of their economic behavior. Performing experiments that use actual people at the level of national economies is obviously not practical, but constructing a model economy and computing the economic behavior of the model’s people is. We refer to such experiments as computational experiments because the economic behavior of the model’s people is computed. In this essay, we specify the steps in designing a computational experiment to address some well posed quantitative question. We emphasize that the computational experiment is an econometric tool used in the task of deriving the quantitative implications of theory.
Soggetto: E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles and C50 - Econometric Modeling: General
Creator: Aiyagari, S. Rao Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 196 Abstract:
I argue that Farmer and Guo's one-sector real business cycle model with indeterminacy and sunspots fails empirically and that its failure is inherent in the logic of the model taken together with some simple labor market facts.
Parola chiave: Indeterminacy, Labor Market, Business cycles, and Sunspots Soggetto: E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles and C32 - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models: Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
Creator: Christiano, Lawrence J. and Harrison, Sharon G. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 214 Abstract:
We study a one-sector growth model which is standard except for the presence of an externality in the production function. The set of competitive equilibria is large. It includes constant equilibria, sunspot equilibria, cyclical and chaotic equilibria, and equilibria with deterministic or stochastic regime switching. The efficient allocation is characterized by constant employment and a constant growth rate. We identify an income tax-subsidy schedule that supports the efficient allocation as the unique equilibrium outcome. That schedule has two properties: (i) it specifies the tax rate to be an increasing function of aggregate employment, and (ii) earnings are subsidized when aggregate employment is at its efficient level. The first feature eliminates inefficient, fluctuating equilibria, while the second induces agents to internalize the externality.
Parola chiave: Business cycle, Regime switching, Stabilization, Fiscal policy, and Multiple equilibria Soggetto: E62 - Fiscal Policy, E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles, and E13 - General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical
Creator: Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 230 Abstract:
An overlapping generations model is developed that contains labor markets in which adverse selection problems arise. As a response to these problems, quantity rationing of labor occurs. In addition, the model is capable of generating (a) random employment and prices despite the absence of underlying uncertainty in equilibrium; (b) a statistical (nondegenerate) Phillips curve; (c) procyclical movements in productivity; (d) correlations between aggregate demand and unemployment (and output); (e) an absence of correlation between unemployment (employment) and real wages. In addition, the Phillips curve obtained typically has the "correct" slope. Finally, the model reconciles the theoretical importance and observed unimportance of intertemporal substitution effects, and explains why price level stability may be a poor policy objective.
Parola chiave: Philips curve, Prices, Labor, Productivity, Money, and Unemployment Soggetto: E24 - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity, E12 - General Aggregative Models: Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian, and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
Creator: Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 232 Abstract:
A model of a "real" business cycle is produced in which labor market participants possess private information. A class of economies is considered in which interesting cycles cannot arise without private information. A methodology adapted from Kydland and Prescott (1982) is then employed to show that models based on private information can empirically confront salient features of postwar U.S. business cycles. Moreover, this can be done in a way which is consistent with existing microeconomic evidence on wages and labor supply. Finally, it is shown that the important features of the model related to private information are fairly general.
Parola chiave: Assymetric information, Labor markets, Labor contracts, and Unemployment Soggetto: D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles