Creator: Bryant, John B. and Supel, Thomas M. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 116 Abstract:
It is commonly asserted that with excess plant capacity, expansive policy stimulates output and lowers unemployment without substantially boosting inflation, while at full capacity most of the impact is on inflation. This assertion is critically examined. First, two common definitions of capacity--engineering and economic—are examined and found to be nebulous. The concepts of supply and demand are older, but better. Full capacity is reinterpreted as points where the supply curve is steep and excess capacity as points where it is fairly flat. Then the "Keynesian" model in which stimulative policy shifts only the demand curve is compared to the "classical" model where stimulative policy shifts both demand and supply curves. For the former model the assertion on capacity utilization is correct, while in the latter it is not. Empirical tests are performed to determine whether measured capacity utilization is useful for predicting inflation. The tests are ambiguous, but certainly do not strongly favor capacity utilization.
Keyword: Aggregate demand, Aggregate economy, Engineering capacity, and Economic capacity Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation and E12 - General aggregative models - Keynes ; Keynesian ; Post-Keynesian
Creator: Coleman, Wilbur John. Series: Nonlinear rational expectations modeling group Abstract:
A cash-in-advance constraint on consumption is incorporated into a standard model of consumption and capital accumulation. Monetary policy consists of lump-sum cash transfers. Methods are developed for establishing the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium. and for explicitly constructing this equilibrium. The model economy's dependence on monetary policy is explored.
Also published in the International Finance Discussion Paper series, number 323.
Keyword: Equilibrium, Planned Growth economy, and Monetary Growth economy Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation, O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, O42 - Economic growth and aggregate productivity - Monetary growth models, and E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy
Creator: Prati, Alessandro, 1961- Series: Monetary theory and financial intermediation Abstract:
The data and press commentaries studied in this paper call for a reinterpretation of the French inflationary crisis and its stabilization in 1926. In contrast with T. J. Sargent's (1984) interpretation, there is evidence that the budgetary situation was well in hand and that only fear of a capital levy made the public unwilling to buy government bonds. As a result, the government had to repay the bonds coming to maturity with monetary financing. Only when Poincare introduced a bill to shift the tax burden off bondholders did the demand for government bonds recover and inflation stop.
Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation, E65 - Macroeconomic policy, macroeconomic aspects of public finance, and general outlook - Studies of particular policy episodes, E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy, and N24 - Economic History: Financial Markets and Institutions: Europe: 1913-
Creator: Den Haan, Wouter J., 1962- Series: Nonlinear rational expectations modeling group Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether, in a Sidrauski type model with uncertainty, welfare maximization calls for following the famous "Chicago Rule". This question will be answered in the affirmative in this paper, i.e. social welfare optimization calls for a zero nominal interest rate on one-period bonds. The zero nominal interest rate, however, does not imply in an uncertain world that there is no systematic difference between the expected rate of deflation and the rate of time preference in an economy without growth. The magnitude of this difference turns out to be small, however. Numerical welfare comparisons are made between the optimal policy and policies in which the growth rate of money is fixed. The optimal policy requires that the monetary authorities react every period to the available information and they choose a growth level of the money stock that will set the interest rate equal to zero. If we compare the time paths of the real variables under the optimal policy with the time paths if the money supply decreases at a rate equal to the rate of time preference, then we see hardly any differences. The price dynamics can be very different, however. The paper also investigates the issue of superneutrality and finds that the quantitative deviations from superneutrality are substantial if a model with a shopping time technology is used. The neo-classical models in this paper are solved numerically using a technique developed in Marcet (1988).
Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation and E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy
Creator: Miller, Preston J. and Todd, Richard M. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 481 Abstract:
This paper investigates the effects of changes in a country's monetary policies on its economy and the welfare of its citizens and those of other countries. Each country is populated by two-period lived overlapping agents who reside in either a home service sector or a world-traded good sector. Policy effects are transmitted through changes in the real interest rate, relative prices, and price levels. Welfare effects are sometimes dominated by relative price movements and can thus be opposite of those found in one-good models. Simulation of dynamic paths also reveals that welfare effects for some types of agents reverse between those born in immediate post-shock periods and those born later.
Keyword: Real interest rates, Relative prices, Exchange rates, Prices, and Monetary policy Subject (JEL): E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy, F31 - International finance - Foreign exchange, and E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation
Creator: Edge, Rochelle Mary, 1971- and Rudd, Jeremy Bay, 1970- Series: Joint commitee on business and financial analysis Abstract:
We add a nominal tax system to a sticky-price monetary business cycle model. When nominal interest income is taxed, the coefficient on inflation in a Taylor-type monetary policy rule must be significantly larger than one in order for the model economy to have a determinate rational expectations equilibrium. When depreciation is treated as a charge against taxable income, an even larger weight on inflation is required in the Taylor rule in order to obtain a determinate and stable equilibrium. These results have obvious implications for assessing the historical conduct of monetary policy.
Keyword: Monetary policy, Business cycle, Cycle, Interest, Inflation, Policy, Prices, Monetary, Rational expectation, and Tax Subject (JEL): E43 - Money and interest rates - Determination of interest rates ; Term structure of interest rates, E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation, E12 - General aggregative models - Keynes ; Keynesian ; Post-Keynesian, and E32 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Business fluctuations ; Cycles
Creator: Erceg, Christopher J. and Levin, Andrew T. (Andrew Theo) Series: Joint commitee on business and financial analysis Abstract:
The durable goods sector is much more interest sensitive than the non-durables sector, and these sectoral differences have important implications for monetary policy. In this paper, we perform VAR analysis of quarterly US data and find that a monetary policy innovation has a peak impact on durable expenditures that is roughly five times as large as its impact on non-durable expenditures. We then proceed to formulate and calibrate a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model that roughly matches the impulse response functions of the data. We derive the social welfare function and show that the optimal monetary policy rule responds to sector-specific inflation rates and output gaps. We show that some commonlyprescribed policy rules perform poorly in terms of social welfare, especially rules that put a higher weight on inflation stabilization than on output gap stabilization. By contrast, it is interesting that certain rules that react only to aggregate variables, including aggregate output gap targeting and rules that respond to a weighted average of price and wage inflation, may yield a welfare level close to the optimum given a typical distribution of shocks.
Keyword: Monetary policy, Consumer, Business cycles, Durable goods, and Social welfare Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation, E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy, and E32 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Business fluctuations ; Cycles
Creator: Altug, Sumru. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 343 Description:
"These notes were... initially circulated as Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Working Paper 343, 1987." The 1987 version is out of print.
Keyword: Price fluctuations, Price bubbles, Money stock, Hyperinflation, Bubble, Phillip Cagan, Real cash balances, and Currency reform Subject (JEL): E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation and E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers