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Creator: Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, Matsui, Akihiko, and Matsuyama, Kiminori Series: Monetary theory and financial intermediation Abstract:
Our goal is to provide a theoretical framework in which both positive and normative aspects of international currency can be addressed in a systematic way. To this end, we use the framework of random matching games and develop a two country model of the world economy, in which two national fiat currencies compete and may be circulated as media of exchange. There are multiple equilibria, which differ in the areas of circulation of the two currencies. In one equilibrium, the two national currencies are circulated only locally. In another, one of the national currencies is circulated as an international currency. There is also an equilibrium in which both currencies are accepted internationally. We also find an equilibrium in which the two currencies are directly exchanged. The existence conditions of these equilibria are characterized, using the relative country size and the degree of economic integration as the key parameters. In order to generate sharper predictions in the presence of multiple equilibria, we discuss an evolutionary approach to equilibrium selection, which is used to explain the evolution of the international currency as the two economies become more integrated. Some welfare implications are also discussed. For example, a country can improve its national welfare by letting its own currency circulated internationally, provided the domestic circulation is controlled for. When the total supply is fixed, however, a resulting currency shortage may reduce the national welfare.
Palabra clave: Money as a medium of exchange, Random matching games, Multiple currencies, Best response dynamics, and Evolution of international currency Tema: F31 - Foreign Exchange, D51 - Exchange and Production Economies, E42 - Monetary Systems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System; Payment Systems, and C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory
Creator: Wong, Yuet-Yee and Wright, Randall D. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 691 Abstract:
We study bilateral exchange, both direct trade and indirect trade that happens through chains of intermediaries or middlemen. We develop a model of this activity and present applications. This illustrates how, and how many, intermediaries get involved, and how the terms of trade are determined. Bargaining with intermediaries depends on how they bargain with downstream intermediaries, leading to interesting holdup problems. We discuss the roles of buyers and sellers in bilateral exchange, and how to interpret prices. We develop a particular bargaining solution and relate it to other solutions. We also illustrate how bubbles can emerge in the value of inventories.
Palabra clave: Middlemen, Search, and Bargaining Tema: D43 - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design: Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection, E40 - Money and Interest Rates: General, and C78 - Bargaining Theory; Matching Theory