Creator: Caselli, Francesco, 1966- and Coleman, Wilbur John Series: Productivity and the industrial revolution Abstract:
The process by which per capita income in the South converged to northern levels is intimately related to the structural transformation of the U.S. economy. We find that empirically most of the southern gains are attributable to the nation-wide convergence of agricultural wages to non-agricultural wages, and the faster rate of transition of the Southern labor force from agricultural to non-agricultural jobs. Similar results describe the Mid-West's catch up to the North-East (but not the relative experience of the West). To explain these observations, we construct a model in which the South (Mid-West) has a comparative advantage in producing unskilled-labor intensive agricultural goods. Thus, it starts with a disproportionate share of the unskilled labor force and lower per capita incomes. Over time, declining education/training costs induce an increasing proportion of the labor force to move out of the (unskilled) agricultural sector and into the (skilled) non-agricultural sector. The decline in the agricultural labor force leads to an increase in relative agricultural wages. Both effects benefit the South (Mid-West) disproportionately since it has more agricultural workers. The model successfully matches the quantitative features of the U.S. structural transformation and regional convergence, as well as several other stylized facts on U.S. economic growth in the last century. The model does not rely on frictions on factor mobility, since in our empirical work we find this channel to be less important than the compositional effects the model emphasizes.
Stichwort: Regional economies, Agricultural and non-agricultural workers, Skill acquisition, Regional convergence, and Structural transformation Fach: O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, O18 - Economic development - Regional, urban, and rural analyses, and O14 - Economic development - Industrialization ; Manufacturing and service industries ; Choice of technology
Creator: Uy, Timothy, Yi, Kei-Mu, and Zhang, Jing Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 456 Abstract:
We study the importance of international trade in structural change. Our framework has both productivity and trade cost shocks, and allows for non-unitary income and substitution elasticities. We calibrate our model to investigate South Korea’s structural change between 1971 and 2005. We find that the shock processes, propagated through the model’s two main transmission mechanisms, non-homothetic preferences and the open economy, explain virtually all of the evolution of agriculture and services labor shares, and the rising part of the hump-shape in manufacturing. Counterfactual exercises show that the role of the open economy is quantitatively important for explaining South Korea’s structural change.
Stichwort: International trade, Sectoral labor reallocation, and Structural transformation Fach: O13 - Economic Development: Agriculture; Natural Resources; Energy; Environment; Other Primary Products, F20 - International Factor Movements and International Business: General, F40 - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance: General, and O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
Creator: Herrendorf, Berthold, Schmitz, James Andrew, and Teixeira, Arilton Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 425 Abstract:
We study the effects of large transportation costs on economic development. We argue that the Midwest and the Northeast of the U.S. is a natural case because starting from 1840 decent data is available showing that the two regions shared key characteristics with today’s developing countries and that transportation costs were large and then came way down. To disentangle the effects of the large reduction in transportation costs from those of other changes that happened during 1840–1860, we build a model that speaks to the distribution of people across regions and across the sectors of production. We find that the large reduction in transportation costs was a quantitatively important force behind the settlement of the Midwest and the regional specialization that concentrated agriculture in the Midwest and industry in the Northeast. Moreover, we find that it led to the convergence of the regional per capita incomes measured in current regional prices and that it increased real GDP per capita. However, the increase in real GDP per capita is considerably smaller than that resulting from the productivity growth in the nontransportation sectors.
Stichwort: Settlement, Transportation costs, Regional income covergence, and Structural transformation Fach: O11 - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development, O18 - Economic Development: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure, and O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models