Creator: McGrattan, Ellen R. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 370 Abstract:
Real business cycles are recurrent fluctuations in an economy’s incomes, products, and factor inputs—especially labor—that are due to nonmonetary sources. These sources include changes in technology, tax rates and government spending, tastes, government regulation, terms of trade, and energy prices. Most real business cycle (RBC) models are variants or extensions of a neoclassical growth model. One such prototype is introduced. It is then shown how RBC theorists, applying the methodology of Kydland and Prescott (Econometrica 1982), use theory to make predictions about actual time series. Extensions of the prototype model, current issues, and open questions are also discussed.
Keyword: Total factor productivity, Competitive equilibrium, Household budget constraint, Real exchange rates, Technology shocks, Stochastic growth models, Markov processes, International business cycles, Stabilization policies, Research and development, Productivity shocks, Labour-market search, Home production, Real business cycles, and Labour supply Subject (JEL): D40 - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design: General and D10 - Household Behavior: General
Creator: Cooper, Russell and Kempf, Hubert Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 311 Abstract:
Central to ongoing debates over the desirability of monetary unions is a supposed trade-off, outlined by Mundell : a monetary union reduces transactions costs but renders stabilization policy less effective. If shocks across countries are sufficiently correlated, then, according to this argument, delegating monetary policy to a single central bank is not very costly and a monetary union is desirable.
This paper explores this argument in a setting with both monetary and fiscal policies. In an economy with monetary policy alone, we confirm the presence of the trade-off and find that indeed a monetary union will not be welfare improving if the correlation of national shocks is too low. However, fiscal interventions by national governments, combined with a central bank that has the ability to commit to monetary policy, overturn these results. In equilibrium, such a monetary union will be welfare improving for any correlation of shocks.
Keyword: Unemployment, Public assistance programs, Monetary unions, Central banks, Income taxes, Currency, and Stabilization policies