Resultados da Busca
Creator: Levine, David K. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 386 Abstract:
In a monetary model, it is shown that if there is a unique Pareto inefficient barter equilibrium, then a monetary equilibrium exists when traders are sufficiently patient.
Palavra-chave: Consumers, Monetary equilbria, Money, Barter equilibria, and Inflation Sujeito: E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems and D51 - General equilibrium and disequilibrium - Exchange and production economies
Creator: Williamson, Stephen D. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 382 Abstract:
A model with private information is constructed that supports conventional arguments for a government monopoly in supplying circulating media of exchange. The model also yields predictions, including rate-of-return dominance of circulating media of exchange, that are consistent with observations from free banking regimes and fiat money regimes. In a laissez faire banking equilibrium, fiat money is not valued, and the resulting allocation is not Pareto optimal. However, if private agents are restricted from issuing circulating notes, there exists an equilibrium with valued fiat money that Pareto dominates the laissez faire equilibrium and is constrained Pareto optimal.
Palavra-chave: Money, Monetary economics, Monetary exchange, Free banking, Private information, Fiat money, Assymetric information, Laissez faire banking, and Currency Sujeito: E42 - Money and interest rates - Monetary systems ; Standards ; Regimes ; Government and the monetary system ; Payment systems and D82 - Information, knowledge, and uncertainty - Asymmetric and private information
Creator: Smith, Bruce D., d. 2002. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 230 Abstract:
An overlapping generations model is developed that contains labor markets in which adverse selection problems arise. As a response to these problems, quantity rationing of labor occurs. In addition, the model is capable of generating (a) random employment and prices despite the absence of underlying uncertainty in equilibrium; (b) a statistical (nondegenerate) Phillips curve; (c) procyclical movements in productivity; (d) correlations between aggregate demand and unemployment (and output); (e) an absence of correlation between unemployment (employment) and real wages. In addition, the Phillips curve obtained typically has the "correct" slope. Finally, the model reconciles the theoretical importance and observed unimportance of intertemporal substitution effects, and explains why price level stability may be a poor policy objective.
Palavra-chave: Money, Prices, Unemployment, Productivity, Labor, and Philips curve Sujeito: E12 - General aggregative models - Keynes ; Keynesian ; Post-Keynesian, E24 - Macroeconomics : Consumption, saving, production, employment, and investment - Employment ; Unemployment ; Wages ; Intergenerational income distribution ; Aggregate human capital, and E32 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Business fluctuations ; Cycles
Creator: Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro. and Wright, Randall. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 464 Abstract:
The classical and early neoclassical economists knew that the essential function of money was its role as a medium of exchange. Recently, this idea has been formalized using search-theoretic noncooperative equilibrium models of the exchange process. The goal of this paper is to use a simple model of this class to analyze four substantive issues in monetary economics: the interaction between specialization and exchange, dual fiat currency regimes, the welfare improving role of money, and the susceptibility of monetary economies to extrinsic uncertainty.
Palavra-chave: Money, Fiat currency, Exchange, Monetary economics, and Fiat money Sujeito: E00 - Macroeconomics and monetary economics - General - General and D83 - Information, knowledge, and uncertainty - Search ; Learning ; Information and knowledge ; Communication ; Belief
Creator: Bryant, John B. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Dept.) Number: 121 Palavra-chave: Interest, Money, and Nontransferable bonds Sujeito: H62 - National budget, deficit, and debt - Deficit ; Surplus and G12 - General financial markets - Asset pricing ; Trading volume ; Bond interest rates
Creator: Bental, Benjamin. and Eden, Benjamin. Series: Lucas expectations anniversary conference Abstract:
We propose a model in which an unanticipated reduction in the money supply leads to a contemporaneous increase in inventories followed by periods with lower output. This persistent real effect does not require price-rigidity or real shocks and confusion. It is obtained in a model in which markets are cleared and agents are price-takers.
Palavra-chave: Productivity, Money supply, Money, and Supply Sujeito: E22 - Macroeconomics : Consumption, saving, production, employment, and investment - Capital ; Investment ; Capacity and E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers
Creator: Chari, V. V., Christiano, Lawrence J., and Eichenbaum, Martin S. Series: Finance, fluctuations, and development Abstract:
Different monetary aggregates covary very differently with short term nominal interest rates. Broad monetary aggregates like Ml and the monetary base covary positively with current and future values of short term interest rates. In contrast, the nonborrowed reserves of banks covary negatively with current and future interest rates. Observations like this 'sign switch' lie at the core of recent debates about the effects of monetary policy actions on short term interest rates. This paper develops a general equilibrium monetary business cycle model which is consistent with these facts. Our basic explanation of the 'sign switch' is that movements in nonborrowed reserves are dominated by exogenous shocks to monetary policy, while movements in the base and Ml are dominated by endogenous responses to non-policy shocks.
Palavra-chave: Monetary policy, Interest, Money, Shocks, Inside money, and Interest rates Sujeito: E43 - Money and interest rates - Determination of interest rates ; Term structure of interest rates and E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers
Creator: Williamson, Stephen D. Series: Finance, fluctuations, and development Abstract:
A cash-in-advance model with sequential markets is constructed, where unanticipated monetary injections are nonneutral and can potentially produce large liquidity effects. However, if the monetary authority adheres to an optimal money rule, money should not respond to unanticipated shocks, so that a Friedman rule is suboptimal and the monetary authority does not exploit the liquidity effect. Quantitatively, the model can generate variability in money and nominal interest rates close to what is observed, and can produce data with no obvious evidence of the existence of liquidity effects.
Palavra-chave: Monetary policy, Interest, Liquidity, Money, and Interest rates Sujeito: E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy and E50 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - General