Risultati della ricerca
Creator: Prescott, Edward C. and Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor Series: Advances in dynamic economics Abstract:
A necessary feature for equilibrium is that beliefs about the behavior of other agents are rational. We argue that in stationary OLG environments this implies that any future generation in the same situation as the initial generation must do as well as the initial generation did in that situation. We conclude that the existing equilibrium concepts in the literature do not satisfy this condition. We then propose an alternative equilibrium concept, organizational equilibrium, that satisfies this condition. We show that equilibrium exists, it is unique, and it improves over autarky without achieving optimality. Moreover, the equilibrium can be readily found by solving a maximization program.
Parola chiave: Rational behavior, Equilibrium, and Overlapping generations Soggetto: D51 - Exchange and Production Economies and E13 - General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical
Creator: Alvarez, Fernando, 1964- and Jermann, Urban J. Series: Endogenous incompleteness Abstract:
We study the asset pricing implications of a multi-agent endowment economy where agents can default on debt. We build on the environment studied by Kocherlakota (1995) and Kehoe and Levine (1993). We present an equilibrium concept for an economy with complete markets and with endogenous solvency constraints. These solvency constraints prevent default, but at the cost of reduced risk sharing. We show that versions of the classical welfare theorems hold for this equilibrium definition. We characterize the pricing kernel, and compare it to the one for economies without participation constraints: interest rates are lower and risk premia depend on the covariance of the idiosyncratic and aggregate shocks.
Parola chiave: Equilibrium, Default, Solvency constraints, Risk, Shocks, and Assets Soggetto: G12 - General financial markets - Asset pricing ; Trading volume ; Bond interest rates and D50 - General equilibrium and disequilibrium - General
Creator: Cooley, Thomas F., Hansen, Gary D. (Gary Duane), and Prescott, Edward C. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 535 Parola chiave: Equilibrium and Business cycle Soggetto: E13 - General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical and E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
Creator: Azariadis, Costas and Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Finance, fluctuations, and development Abstract:
We study a variant of the one-sector neoclassical growth model of Diamond in which capital investment must be credit financed, and an adverse selection problem appears in loan markets. The result is that the unfettered operation of credit markets leads to a one-dimensional indeterminacy of equilibrium. Many equilibria display economic fluctuations which do not vanish asymptotically; such equilibria are characterized by transitions between a Walrasian regime in which the adverse selection problem does not matter, and a regime of credit rationing in which it does. Moreover, for some configurations of parameters, all equilibria display such transitions for two reasons. One, the banking system imposes ceilings on credit when the economy expands and floors when it contracts because the quality of public information about the applicant pool of potential borrowers is negatively correlated with the demand for credit. Two, depositors believe that returns on bank deposits will be low (or high): these beliefs lead them to transfer savings out of (into) the banking system and into less (more) productive uses. The associated disintermediation (or its opposite) causes banks to contract (expand) credit. The result is a set of equilibrium interest rates on loans that validate depositors' original beliefs. We investigate the existence of perfect foresight equilibria displaying periodic (possibly asymmetric) cycles that consist of m periods of expansion followed by n periods of contraction, and propose an algorithm that detects all such cycles.
Parola chiave: Equilibrium, Business cycles, Credit markets, and Interest rates Soggetto: E51 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Money supply ; Credit ; Money multipliers, E32 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Business fluctuations ; Cycles, O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, and E44 - Money and interest rates - Financial markets and the macroeconomy
Creator: Kehoe, Timothy Jerome, 1953-, Levine, David K., and Romer, Paul Michael, 1955- Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 400 Abstract:
We consider a production economy with a finite number of heterogeneous, infinitely lived consumers. We show that, if the economy is smooth enough, equilibria are locally unique for almost all endowments. We do so by converting the infinite dimensional fixed point problem stated in terms of prices and commodities into a finite dimensional Negishi problem involving individual weights in a social value function. By adding a set of artificial fixed factors to utility and production functions, we can write the equilibrium conditions equating spending and income for each consumer entirely in terms of time zero factor endowments and derivatives of the social value function.
Parola chiave: Consumer, Equilibrium, and Dynamic model Soggetto: C62 - Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium
Creator: Coleman, Wilbur John Series: Nonlinear rational expectations modeling group Abstract:
A cash-in-advance constraint on consumption is incorporated into a standard model of consumption and capital accumulation. Monetary policy consists of lump-sum cash transfers. Methods are developed for establishing the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium. and for explicitly constructing this equilibrium. The model economy's dependence on monetary policy is explored.
Also published in the International Finance Discussion Paper series, number 323.
Parola chiave: Planned Growth economy, Monetary Growth economy, and Equilibrium Soggetto: O42 - Economic growth and aggregate productivity - Monetary growth models, E31 - Prices, business fluctuations, and cycles - Price level ; Inflation ; Deflation, O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, and E52 - Monetary policy, central banking, and the supply of money and credit - Monetary policy
Creator: Kehoe, Patrick J. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 367 Parola chiave: Stockman, Risk, Equilibrium, Shocks, Dynamic economy, and Stochastic comparative statistics Soggetto: C19 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Other and E13 - General Aggregative Models: Neoclassical
Creator: Smith, Bruce D. (Bruce David), 1954-2002 Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 258 Abstract:
Recent developments in the theory of economies with private information permit a re-examination of the issues raised in the "real bills-quantity theory" debate. A model is developed here in which there are banks, in which fiat money is present, and in which agents possess private information. Two regulatory regimes are then considered. In the first, banks are essentially unregulated. In the second, banks face 100 percent reserve requirements. Issues related to existence and optimality of equilibrium are addressed, and problems with existence are given an interpretation in terms of the "stability" of the banking system. Existence (stability) problems which arise under laissez-faire banking can be rectified by a 100 percent reserve requirement. However, unless there is private information regarding access to investment opportunities, there are typically better ways to accomplish this. Finally, it is shown that even in the presence of 100 percent reserve requirements banks are not simply "money warehouses." Bank deposits and money bear different (real) return streams, even under 100 percent reserves.
Parola chiave: Fiat money, Equilibrium, Real bills-quantity theory, Regulation, Bank, and Financial intermediaries Soggetto: D82 - Asymmetric and Private Information; Mechanism Design and G21 - Banks; Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
Creator: Bryant, John B. and Wallace, Neil Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 109 Parola chiave: Equilibrium, Open market purchases, Samuelson's pure consuption loans model, and Deflation Soggetto: E51 - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers and E58 - Central Banks and Their Policies
Creator: Bental, Benjamin Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 103 Parola chiave: Schauder's theorem, Equilibrium, Fixed point theorem, and Overlapping generations Soggetto: D58 - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models and C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models
Creator: Anderson, Paul A. Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 102 Parola chiave: Equilibrium, Rational expectations, Forecasting, and Hogs Soggetto: Q11 - Agriculture: Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices and E30 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data)