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Creator: Jagannathan, Ravi, McGrattan, Ellen R., and Scherbina, Anna Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 24, No. 4 Abstract:
This study demonstrates that the U.S. equity premium has declined significantly during the last three decades. The study calculates the equity premium using a variation of a formula in the classic Gordon stock valuation model. The calculation includes the bond yield, the stock dividend yield, and the expected dividend growth rate, which in this formulation can change over time. The study calculates the premium for several measures of the aggregate U.S. stock portfolio and several assumptions about bond yields and stock dividends and gets basically the same result. The premium averaged about 7 percentage points during 1926–70 and only about 0.7 of a percentage point after that. This result is shown to be reasonable by demonstrating the roughly equal returns that investments in stocks and consol bonds of the same duration would have earned between 1982 and 1999, years when the equity premium is estimated to have been zero.
Creator: Jagannathan, Ravi and Kocherlakota, Narayana Rao, 1963- Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 20, No. 3 Abstract:
Financial planners typically advise people to shift investments away from stocks and toward bonds as they age. The planners commonly justify this advice in three ways. They argue that stocks are less risky over a young person’s long investment horizon, that stocks are often necessary for young people to meet large financial obligations (like college tuition for their children), and that younger people have more years of labor income ahead with which to recover from the potential losses associated with stock ownership. This article uses economic reasoning to evaluate these three different justifications. It finds that the first two arguments do not make economic sense. The last argument is valid—but only for people with labor income that is relatively uncorrelated with stock returns. If a person’s labor income is highly correlated with stock returns, then that investor is better off shifting investments toward stocks over time.
Creator: Jagannathan, Ravi and McGrattan, Ellen R. Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 19, No. 4 Abstract:
This article describes the academic debate about the usefulness of the capital asset pricing model (the CAPM) developed by Sharpe and Lintner. First the article describes the data the model is meant to explain—the historical average returns for various types of assets over long time periods. Then the article develops a version of the CAPM and describes how it measures the risk of investing in particular assets. Finally the article describes the results of competing studies of the model's validity. Included are studies that support the CAPM (Black; Black, Jensen, and Scholes; Fama and MacBeth), studies that challenge it (Banz; Fama and French), and studies that challenge those challenges (Amihud, Christensen, and Mendelson; Black; Breen and Korajczyk; Jagannathan and Wang; Kothari, Shanken, and Sloan). The article concludes by suggesting that, while academic debate continues, the CAPM may still be useful for those interested in the long run.
Creator: Chari, V. V. and Jagannathan, Ravi Series: Quarterly review (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: Vol. 14, No. 3 Abstract:
This paper uses a simple, graphical approach to analyze what happens to commodity prices and economic welfare when futures markets are introduced into an economy. It concludes that these markets do not necessarily make prices more or less stable. It also concludes that, contrary to common belief, whatever happens to commodity prices is not necessarily related to what happens to the economic welfare of market participants: even when futures markets reduce the volatility of prices, some people can be made worse off. These conclusions come from a series of models that differ in their assumptions about the primary function of futures markets, the structure of the industries involved, and the tastes and technologies of the market participants.
Creator: Glosten, Lawrence R., Jagannathan, Ravi, and Runkle, David Edward Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 157 Abstract:
We find support for a negative relation between conditional expected monthly return and conditional variance of monthly return, using a GARCH-M model modified by allowing (i) seasonal patterns in volatility, (ii) positive and negative innovations to returns having different impacts on conditional volatility, and (iii) nominal interest rates to predict conditional variance. Using the modified GARCH-M model, we also show that monthly conditional volatility may not be as persistent as was thought. Positive unanticipated returns appear to result in a downward revision of the conditional volatility whereas negative unanticipated returns result in an upward revision of conditional volatility.
Creator: Hansen, Lars Peter and Jagannathan, Ravi Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 167 Abstract:
In this paper we develop alternative ways to compare asset pricing models when it is understood that their implied stochastic discount factors do not price all portfolios correctly. Unlike comparisons based on chi-squared statistics associated with null hypotheses that models are correct, our measures of model performance do not reward variability of discount factor proxies. One of our measures is designed to exploit fully the implications of arbitrage-free pricing of derivative claims. We demonstrate empirically the usefulness of methods in assessing some alternative stochastic factor models that have been proposed in asset pricing literature.
Tema: G10 - General Financial Markets: General (includes Measurement and Data), C13 - Estimation: General, C10 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General, C12 - Hypothesis Testing: General, G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates, and E30 - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles: General (includes Measurement and Data)
Creator: Chari, V. V., Jagannathan, Ravi, and Ofer, Aharon R. Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 110 Abstract:
An examination of the behavior of stock returns around quarterly earnings announcement dates finds a seasonal pattern: small firms show large positive abnormal returns and a sizable increase in the variability of returns around these dates. Only part of the large abnormal returns can be accounted for by the fact that firms with good news tend to announce early. Large firms show no abnormal returns around announcement dates and a much smaller increase in variability.
Creator: Glosten, Lawrence R. and Jagannathan, Ravi Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 159 Abstract:
We show that valuing performance is equivalent to valuing a particular contingent claim on an index portfolio. In general the form of the contingent claim is not known and must be estimated. We suggest approximating the contingent claim by a series of options. We illustrate the use of our method by evaluating the performance of 130 mutual funds during the period 1968–82. We find that the relative performance rank of a fund is rather insensitive to the choice of the index, even though the actual value of the services of the portfolio manager depends on the choice of the index.
Creator: Jagannathan, Ravi and Wang, Zhenyu Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 165 Abstract:
In empirical studies of the CAPM, it is commonly assumed that, (a) the return to the value-weighted portfolio of all stocks is a reasonable proxy for the return on the market portfolio of all assets in the economy, and (b) betas of assets remain constant over time. Under these assumptions, Fama and French (1992) find that the relation between average return and beta is flat. We argue that these two auxiliary assumptions are not reasonable. We demonstrate that when these assumptions are relaxed, the empirical support for the CAPM is very strong. When human capital is also included in measuring wealth, the CAPM is able to explain 28% of the cross sectional variation in average returns in the 100 portfolios studied by Fama and French. When, in addition, betas are allowed to vary over the business cycle, the CAPM is able to explain 57%. More important, relative size does not explain what is left unexplained after taking sampling errors into account.
Tema: G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
Creator: Boyd, John H. and Jagannathan, Ravi Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 173 Abstract:
This study examines common stock prices around ex-dividend dates. Such price data usually contain a mixture of observations—some with and some without arbitrageurs and/or dividend capturers active. Our theory predicts that such mixing will result in some nonlinear relation between percentage price drop and dividend yield—not the commonly assumed linear relation. This prediction and another important prediction of theory are supported empirically. In a variety of tests, marginal price drop is not significantly different from the dividend amount. Thus, over the last several decades, one-for-one marginal price drop has been an excellent (average) rule of thumb.
Tema: G14 - Information and Market Efficiency; Event Studies; Insider Trading and G12 - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates