Creator: Boldrin, Michele, Christiano, Lawrence J., and Fisher, Jonas D. M. (Jonas Daniel Maurice), 1965- Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 280 Abstract:
We introduce two modifications into the standard real business cycle model: habit persistence preferences and limitations on intersectoral factor mobility. The resulting model is consistent with the observed mean equity premium, mean risk free rate and Sharpe ratio on equity. The model does roughly as well as the standard real business cycle model with respect to standard measures. On four other dimensions its business cycle implications represent a substantial improvement. It accounts for (i) persistence in output, (ii) the observation that employment across different sectors moves together over the business cycle, (iii) the evidence of ‘excess sensitivity’ of consumption growth to output growth, and (iv) the ‘inverted leading indicator property of interest rates,’ that high interest rates are negatively correlated with future output.
关键词: Risk aversion, Capital gains, Habit persistence , and Asset pricing 学科: E32 - Business Fluctuations; Cycles, O41 - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models, and E44 - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
Creator: Boldrin, Michele, Christiano, Lawrence J., and Fisher, Jonas D. M. (Jonas Daniel Maurice), 1965- Series: Working paper (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 560 Abstract:
We develop a model which accounts for the observed equity premium and average risk-free rate, without implying counterfactually high risk aversion. The model also does well in accounting for business-cycle phenomena. With respect to the conventional measures of business-cycle volatility and comovement with output, the model does roughly as well as the standard business-cycle model. On two other dimensions, the model’s business-cycle implications are actually improved. Its enhanced internal propagation allows it to account for the fact that there is positive persistence in output growth, and the model also provides a resolution to the “excess sensitivity puzzle” for consumption and income. Two key features of the model are habit persistence preferences and a multisector technology with limited intersectoral mobility of factors of production.
Creator: Christiano, Lawrence J. and Fisher, Jonas D. M. (Jonas Daniel Maurice), 1965- Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 200 Abstract:
The marginal cost of plant capacity, measured by the price of equity, is significantly procyclical. Yet, the price of a major intermediate input into expanding plant capacity, investment goods, is countercyclical. The ratio of these prices is Tobin's q. Following convention, we interpret the fact that Tobin's q differs from unity at all, as reflecting that there are diminishing returns to expanding plant capacity by installing investment goods ("adjustment costs"). However, the phenomenon that interests us is not just that Tobin's q differs from unity, but also that its numerator and denominator have such different cyclical properties. We interpret the sign switch in their covariation with output as reflecting the interaction of our adjustment cost specification with the operation of two shocks: one which affects the demand for equity and another which shifts the technology for producing investment goods. The adjustment costs cause the two prices to respond differently to these two shocks, and this is why it is possible to choose the shock variances to reproduce the sign switch. These model features are incorporated into a modified version of a model analyzed in Boldrin, Christiano and Fisher (1995). That model incorporates assumptions designed to help account for the observed mean return on risk free and risky assets. We find that the various modifications not only account for the sign switch, but they also continue to account for the salient features of mean asset returns. We turn to the business cycle implications of our model. The model does as well as standard models with respect to conventional business cycle measures of volatility and comovement with output, and on one dimension the model significantly dominates standard models. The factors that help it account for prices and rates of return on assets also help it account for the fact that employment across a broad range of sectors moves together over the cycle.
Creator: Christiano, Lawrence J. and Fisher, Jonas D. M. (Jonas Daniel Maurice), 1965- Series: Staff report (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Research Department) Number: 171 Abstract:
We describe several methods for approximating the solution to a model in which inequality constraints occasionally bind, and we compare their performance. We apply the methods to a particular model economy which satisfies two criteria: It is similar to the type of model used in actual research applications, and it is sufficiently simple that we can compute what we presume is virtually the exact solution. We have two results. First, all the algorithms are reasonably accurate. Second, on the basis of speed, accuracy and convenience of implementation, one algorithm dominates the rest. We show how to implement this algorithm in a general multidimensional setting, and discuss the likelihood that the results based on our example economy generalize.
关键词: Collocation, Parameterized expectations, Occasionally binding constraints, and Chebyshev interpolation 学科: C63 - Computational Techniques; Simulation Modeling, C60 - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling: General, and C68 - Computable General Equilibrium Models